Towards next-generation IoT networks

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an extensive network of heterogeneous devices that provides an array of innovative applications and services. IoT networks enable the integration of data and services to seamlessly interconnect the cyber and physical systems. However, the heterogeneity of devices, underlying technologies and lack of standardization pose critical challenges in this domain. On account of these challenges, this research article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the enabling technologies and standards that build up the IoT technology stack. First, a layered architecture approach is presented where the state-of-the-art research and open challenges are discussed at every layer. Next, this research article focuses on the role of middleware platforms in IoT application development and integration. Furthermore, this article addresses the open challenges and provides comprehensive steps towards IoT stack optimization. Finally, the interfacing of Fog/Edge Networks to IoT technology stack is thoroughly investigated by discussing the current research and open challenges in this domain. The main scope of this study is to provide a comprehensive review into IoT technology (the horizontal fabric), the associated middleware and networks required to build future proof applications (the vertical markets).